Opinion of the CSIF-CEM on the effects of radio frequencies on
the blood-brain barrier

Autor : R. GAUTIER
Readers / correctors : D. OBERHAUSEN, R SANTINI
    Abstract :
    This review of publications on the effects of the electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the range of radio frequencies on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) shows that after the evidences of thermic effects various studies showed an action of permeabilisation to very weak, non thermic doses. The conflicts of some studies not showing effects like more technical differences than doubt on the reality of these effects. Consequences confront already in term of increase of the troubles of headaches, and last works give some consistency to fears relative to the increase of disease neuro-degenerative as the ALS, the disease of Alzheimer, the autisme. Been afraid all the more big as all the broadcasts of radio frequencies are concerned : mobile telephony GSM or UMTS (bases stations included), networks without thread, Wi-FI, personal broadcasting stations of 'take care' of the babies, and could appear from 0,4 V/m. It is so indispensable to decrease the doses of exhibition of the population and to increase search studies as regards the weak doses of exhibition in radio frequencies. On line www.csif-cem.org , On April 11, 2003

  1. The BBB
    Limit between the blood and the nerve cells of the brain is named blood - brain barrier ( BBB). The role is that of an active barrier with on one hand transport towards the brain of the indispensable nourishing elements, such the glucose, and on the other hand the freezing of the potentially harmful substances for nerve cells. This BBB also has a role of regulation in the concentration of various elements such ions.

  2. Synthesis of various works
    Publications on the effects of the electromagnetic fields ( EMF) of the mobile telephony on the BBB are numerous and the tested doses of exhibition cover the values of fields able to be received by the users of mobil phone and also partially by the local residents of base station.

    courbe SAR/effet sur la BBB

    Figure 1: Report between the SAR ( brain) * and effect on leakage of the BBB.
    (letters correspond to the first 2 letters of the name of the first author)

    All the studies are recapitulated on the figure 1.
    With thermic doses the majority of experiments (1-6 , 8 , 9, 12 , 20-32) showed an effect what is the object moreover of a consensus. Some teams do not find however any effect either in non-thermic dose or in thermic dose (10 , 11). It is so logical to call upon a problem of sensibility of detection of the leak of albumin at the level of the BBB for these teams as do the Dr Persson ( 5 ). Finnie's works and al (10) are a good example of it because their conclusion is a weak leakage while results in the paper show a significant increase of the leaks of albumin so as 16 W / kg (brain).

    In the zone of 0.3 W / kg (brain) in 5 W / kg (so bums around not thermic corresponding to doses received by an user of mobil phone) all the teams using the albumin as marker (1-6 , 8 , 10, 12 , 13) find equivalent results, except Tsurita ( 7 ) who does not confirm the sensibility of detection in thermic zone. Two other teams do not find effect but with other markers that the albumin and without confirming their detection in thermic zone ( 32-35 ).
    The used marker is important because the BBB is an active barrier and which a substance (for example the albumin) can see its modified transport without it is case for another substance (for example sucrose).

    Near 0.1 W / kg a 0.3 W / kg there is conflict between Persson's ( 3,5,8,13 ) works, of Fritze ( 4 ) on one hand and those of Tore ( 12 ) on the other hand, but this conflict is only visible because with a wave modulated to 217 Hz (type GSM) identical to Tore, Salford ( 3,5,8,13 ) or Fritze ( 4 ) finds only a weak action (which increases in the lower doses, to see below) contrary to the continuous wave of radio frequency (3,5,8,28)

    Below 0.1 W / kg (brain) team of Persson confirm by developing Frey's ( 28 ) works. The various reports of these experiments show an important action until complete SAR body of 0.0016 W / kg is about 0.006 W / kg averaged on the brain, whether it is in continuous wave or in modulated wave. The exhibition of rats making in 24 µW/cm² (about 3 V/m to 7.7 V/m at the level of rats according to the mode of calculation - broadcast to 9.5 V/m) these doses are of the order of those received by the local residents of base station or during a passive pollution of a person being situated unless 1m80 of an user of mobil phone ( 8 ).

    It is so evident that there are no conflicts between various works contrary that one finds in certain reports ( 37,38 ), it is as evident as the doses of these experiments are of the order of that received by the users of cellular phones and that of the distant field of base station, in contradiction with the Dr De Sèze ( 39 ) or Pr Moulder ( 60 ).

    What is also very net, it is that one does not find relation strictly linear dose / effect but in shape of hollow of wave and in a narrow zone relation dose / effect can be inverted (3,5,41) with regard to what wait for certain physicists.
    Moreover this notion of window was noticed for the other effects ( 44 ) and is a part integral of the proposed mechanism of action ( 43 ) for the action of the EMF.

    As regards a possible exhibition repeated to very weak doses, single team ( 9 ) evoked works of this type but works are not published. However in these doses it was shown that time is also a factor ( 5 ) as it was shown for the other effects of microwaves ( 14,15,16,17,18 ).

  3. Consequences of these abnormalities
    A change of the BBB by increase of the permeability is susceptible to allow to pass at the level of the nerve cells of substances such the albumin, ions, metals ( 42 ), chemical substances ( 23,28 ), viruses ( 24 ).
    Experiments are made mainly on the rat because of the analogies of the structure of the BBB with that of the man, it is moreover the model of choice for all the studies concerning the consequences of an brain ischemy or the studies concerning the disease of Alzheimer among others.

    Short-term consequences are the forming of micro-oedemas, inflammation, and so appearance of migraines, headache. These last ones are moreover widely found in the epidemiological inquiries at the users of mobil phone (47,48,49,50,51,52 , 61). The first attempts of explanations appealed to the heater coming from the battery of the phone itself but this explanation does not hold any more with the more recent phones and the direct responsibility of the EMF is evoked (36,46). Of more these pathologies meet themselves in the epidemiological inquiries concerning the local residents of base stations ( 53-59 ) for which the notion of heater is naturally non-existent.
    The possible consequences of the leakage of the barrier blood - humor glazed with the eye ( 28 ) by radio frequencies were not enough studied.
    There were no studies about EMF effects in the blood-thymus barrier while a leakage of this barrier could be involved in the development of tumors (64) and would explain the biggest sensibility of children ( leukaemia) to the EMF of the electricity

    Some teams note the reversibility of the leakage of the BBB ( 4,20 ). This correction regrettably has no interest within the framework of the use repeated by the mobil phones or the permanent exhibition of the local residents of base station, more the secondary consequences of this leakage in longer term exist.

    Sarcomas, astrocytomes, and more generally brain tumours of which the seat is at the level of brains, notably lepto-meningeal have an inflammatory supposed origin.

    If the degeneracy of nerve cells was first of all only a hypothesis ( 5,45 ) and it was recently demonstrated to very weak dose ( 13 ): 24 µW/cm2 (About 3 V/m to 7.7 V/m at the level of rats according to the mode of calculation) confirming Hassel's ( 31 ) works which showed the toxicity of the albumin in excess at the level of the brain. The infringement of nerve cells is an important pathology and these works consolidated those that evoke the influence of the electromagnetic fields of the mobile telephony and the EMF generally on the actual increase of the number of neuro-degenerative diseases (ALS, Alzheimer, Autisme). For the ALS it is important to note that connection with the EMF of in the electricity is already demonstrated (19).

  4. Mechanisms
    Studies showing that radio frequencies are a factor of stress cellular are very numerous (refer to 62) with as first visible consequence the modifications of syntheses of the proteins of stress hsp. The active transport at the level of the BBB brings in in brain endothelials cells phosphorylation-dephosphorylation by enzymes, the SAP KINASES - Stress Activated Protein Kinases which are also activated with the cellular stress giving an increase of the intracellular traffic, the transcytose. Immediate consequence is the forming of oedemas and brain haemorrhagic necroses.

    Secondly it is necessary to note at the level of the BBB important interweaving with neurones and what an infringement of neurones is irreversible.
    These neurones are also secretary of neurotransmetteurs for which the synthesis can be allocated to several levels by the way of cellular stress. For example and to show the equivalence of the action on the human being, pulsed radio frequencies are responsible, when exhibition takes place in the evening or the night, of visible modifications in the electro-encephalogram (see 62) corresponding exactly to an inactivation of catecholaminergics neurones with the corresponding confusions of the sleep.

    Any chronic infringement on the various systems of neuro-transmitters with impossibility of medium-term regulation because of the variations of exhibition in radio frequencies give a degeneracy of neurones and neuro-degenerative diseases which are the consequences of it.

    the weakest doses of EMF giving a modification of cycles and cellular syntheses is of the order of 0,05 µW/cm2 ( 0,4 V/m).

  5. Conclusion
    The effect of the electromagnetic fields of radio frequencies in term of leakage of the BBB does not make so any doubt either for thermal levels, or for non-thermal levels like those received by local residents of mobil phone base station, the users of mobile phones and their neighbours what justifies so measures of care which must be very important because of existing consequences and of those predictable long-term. These effects appear, according to some teams to very low levels which concern passiv telephony and local residents of base station for which is needed so an important decline of the levels of successful brilliances : 0.1 µW/cm2 Is 0.6 V/m is a factor of security according to current knowledge and so susceptible to be seen revised in the decline.

    Of more search the determination of the value must be absolutely accelerated by turning to the study of the effects of brilliances repeated to weak dose as well as threshold of appearance of these effects. After the GSM the next arrival of the UMTS technology with the micro-stations which will concern all population is completely concerned by these fatal effects, as all the broadcasting stations of radio frequencies.

Various studies and comments:

1. Williams et al Effect of 2450 MHz Microwave Energy on the Blood-Brain Barrier to Hydrophilic Molecules. Brain Res (1984) 319:165-212
Exhibition from rats in 2450 (continuous) MHZ during 30 - 90 mn on SAR with thermic doses From 4 to 13 W / kg (brain). The authors find an increase of the permeability of the BBB in hydrophilic molecules, of which the sucrose, and the intensity of these leaks are a function of the SAR of exhibition, they conclude from it that this effect is for thermal mediation, but there are no experiments made under 4 W / kg).
2. Neubauer et al Microwave Irradiation of Rats At 2.45 GHz Activates Pinocytotic-Like Uptake of Tracer by Capillary Endothelial Cells of the Cerebral Cortex. Bioelectromagnetics (1990) 11:261-268; Radiat Res (1994) 137:52-58
Exhibition of rats from 30 mn in 2 W / kg (brain) 2400 MHZ pulsed in distant field shows a leakage. This one is decreased with Colchicine showing so the role of the cellular microtubules. They also showed that the action of thermal levels (72.4 W / kg) give effects which are not the sames.
3. Salford et al Permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50, and 200 Hz. Microsc Res Tech 1994 Apr 15;27(6):535-42
Exhibition of rats to 900 MHZ (continuous or GSM) during 2 hours in SAR from 0.016 to 5 W / kg show a leak of albumin at the level of the BBB with continuous waves and more still with typical modulated waves GSM.
4. Fritze et al Effect of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in rat. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1997 Nov;94(5):465-70
After exhibition in distant field of free rats of they movements they find a weak leakage of the BBB to the rat in 0.3 W / kg and 1 W / kg (brain) and significant in 7.5 W / kg ( thermal level) they notes that this leakage is reversible (no discovered leaks 7 days after exhibition) and estimates so that this exhibition with weak doses pull certainly no pathological effects.
Note: this studie is sometimes quoted as showing no effect at non-thermal level. Nevertheless one can extract from the abstract sentence summarizing measures:
In the group witness wrongly exposed (n = 20) three animals showed a total of < B> 4 extravasations. In animals irradiated for 4 hours to SAR of 0.3 , 1.5 and 7.5 W / kg (n = 20 in every group) five of ten animals of every group killed in the end of the exhibition showed 7 , 6 and 14 extravasations, respectively
It is a question so a lot of effect even though he is weak.
5. Persson et al Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication. Wireless Networks 3 (1997) pages 455-461.
Exhibition of rats to 915 MHZ under numerous forms: continuous or with modulation with different frequencies and during different times: 2 mn in 960 mn. The SAR was also variable: from 0.001 W / kg to 8 W / kg. ( Complete body) or about 0.006 W / kg a 32 W / kg (brain)
Rats were so exposed at least to peaks of densities of power of 24 µW/cm2 (7.7 V/m on average).
All the groups showed in 2 hours of the leaks of albumin at the level of the BBB with differences according to the SAR and the type of wave or modulation, so maximum effect is in the SAR of 1mW / kg whereas effect is less net in 0.2 W / kg with a wave like GSM.
In this studie are described the systems of exhibition of rats.
6. Schirmacher et al Electromagnetic Fields (1.8 GHz) Increase the Permeability to Sucrose of the Blood-Brain Barrier. Bioelectromagnetics (2000) 21: 338-345
Exhibition of cells of rat and pig in 1800 MHZ ( GSM) 0.3 W / kg /4 days pull an increase of the permeability of the BBB in the sucrose. Temperature variations are controlled by infrared and are insignificant.
7. Tsurita et al Biological and morphological effects on the brain after exposure of rats to a 1439 MHz TDMA field. Bioelectromagnetics 2000 Jul;21(5):364-71
Exhibition of rats in close fields in 1400 MHZ ( TDMA) during 1 hour / day /2 or 4 weeks in 0.25 W / kg ( complete body) is 2 W / kg (brain). The authors did not observe any effect in the leak of albumin at the level of the BBB.
They confirm the previous experiments with exhibitions to 900 MHZ and on 1800 MHZ, and evokes works in the course of exhibition repeated in the long run.
He makes a review of publications and declares, that so previously publications were contradictory recent studies show an effect of leakage of the BBB in very low level of microwaves. Experiments of replication are current.
10. Finnie et al Effect of long-term mobile communication microwave exposure on vascular permeability in mouse brain. Pathology 2002 Aug;34(4):344-7
Exhibition to 900 MHZ ( GSM) in long-term distant field of rats: 1 hour, 5 j / week, 104 weeks, From 0.25 to 4 W / kg ( complete body) or about 1 in 16 W / kg (brain). They study the leak of albumin in 3 cuttings only of the brain. They find a leak of albumin which they consider as unimportant. In the reading of results they find (reported to 100 animals) 26 % of leaks at the sham, 65 % at 0,25 W / kg ( complete body), 51 % a 1 W / kg, 78 % at 2 W / kg, 20 % at 4 W / kg. Only exhibition on the limit of thermal level does not show results.
11. Okhubo et al Effects of the Exposure to High Frequency Electromagnetic Waves on the Rat Brain. BEMS 2002
Exhibition in 1440 MHZ of rats of 1 W / kg (brain) of a way prolonged ( 4 weeks) or only 4 hours in (thermal) 7.4 W / kg. No effect is reported. It is necessary to note that even with the thermal level, they do not find effect.
Exhibition of rats in close field during 2 hours to 900 MHZ ( GSM) in 0.12 , 0.5 and 2 W / kg (brain) in conditions allowing also to verify the absence of effects of a possible stress. There was a leak of albumin in 2 and in 0.5 W / kg for lack of any temperature variation
The systems of exhibition can be consulted on the site of the Comobio project of which is a part this works : http://www.tsi.enst.fr/comobio/resultats/SP2.html
13. Salford et al Nerve Cell Damage in Mammalian Brain after Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones. Env. Health Persp. On line, Janvier 2003
Exhibition of rats to 900 MHZ during 2 hours from SAR of 2 mW / kg (that is an average expostion of 7.7 V/m), but animals are sacrificed only 50 days later. The analyses of the brain show damages at the level of nerve cells confirming the works of Hamnerius et al BEMS 1984
14. Di Carlo et al Chronic electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers cytoprotection. J Cell Biochem 2002;84(3):447-54
Demonstrate the mechanism of cellular action of microwaves giving cancers and show the importance of a repeated exhibition.
Effect of fields to 50 Hz in the immunizing system of mouse, importance of the time of exhibition
Action on cells, on prostaglandines according to the time of exhibition
17. Busljeta et al Hematopoeisis of Rat after Whole BOdy Radiofrequency MW Radiation. Biological Effects of EMFs meeting (2002) Rhodes Greece; EBEA 2001 meeting, Helsinki Finland
Actions on the hematopoiesis, influence of the time of exhibition
18. Croft Acute Mobile Phone Operation Affects Neural Function in Humans. Clinical Neurophysiology (2002) 113:1623-1632 Show effects in the EEG and the importance of the time of exhibition
19. Neutra et al Report in the state of California 2002.
20. Albert et al Reversible Microwave Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier. Brain Res (1981) 230:153-164;Radio Sci (1979) 14:323-327; J Microw Power (1977) 12(1):43-44
Exhibition of hamster in 2.5 W / kg ( complete body) and show a leakage of the BBB which is reversible in 2 hours.
21. Sutton Effects of Microwave-Induced Hyperthermia on the Blood-Brain Barrier of the Rat. Radio Sci (1979) 14:329-334.
Exhibition from rats in 2450 MHZ ( CW) in thermal level and leakage of the BBB which they do not find at pigs in 8.1 W / kg [Sutton CH, Balzano Q, Garay O, Carroll FB J Microw Power (1982) 17(4):280-281]
22. Ohmoto et al Sequential Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow, Early Neuropathological Consequences and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Following Radiofrequency-Induced Localized Hyperthermia in the Rat. Int J Hyperthermia (1996) 12:321-34
Exhibition with thermal level of rats and leakage of the BBB.
23. Quock et al Microwave Facilitation of Domperidone Antagonism of Apomorphine-Induced Stereotypic Climbing in Mice. Bioelectromagnetics (1987) 8:45-55
Exhibition from mouse in 2450 MHZ ( CW) in 53 W / kg and potentialisation of the action of chemical substances, the authors suggest that it is by increase of the permeability of the BBB.
24. Lange Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV): Potentiation of Lethality in Mice by Microwave Radiation Bioelectromagnetics (1991) 12:335-348
Exhibition from mouse in 2450 MHZ ( CW) in 23 in 97 W / kg and shows a leakage of the BBB (by passage of virus).
25. Goldman et al Cerebrovascular Permeability to 86Rb in the Rat After Exposure to Pulsed Microwaves Bioelectromagnetics (1984) 5:323-330
Exhibition from rats in 2450 MHZ ( CW) in a SAR of 240 W / kg and leakage of the BBB.
26. Moriyama Blood-Brain Barrier Alteration After Microwave-Induced Hyperthermia is Purely a Thermal Effect. Surg Neurol (1991) 35:177-182
Exhibition from rats in 2450 MHZ ( CW) with thermal level and leakage of the BBB.
27. Oscar et al Microwave Alteration of the Blood-Brain Barrier System of Rats. Exp Neurol (1982) 75:299-307; Brain Res (1981) 204:220-225; Brain Res (1977) 126:281-293
Exhibition of rats 20 mn to 1.3 GHZ (CW AND PW) in 3 mW / cm2 and leakage of the BBB, and also in 2.8 GHZ (CW AND PW) in 15 mW / cm2 during 60 mn (increase of the intellectual bloody stream). In the last study they do not find effect to 2.8 GHZ ( PW) in 40 mW / cm2 in the permeability in the sucrose.
28. Frey Studies of the Blood-Brain Barrier. Radio Sci (1979) 14:349-350; J Bioelectr (1984) 3(1/2):281-292
Exhibition from rats in 1200 MHZ (CW AND PW) in 0.1 mW/cm² with leakage of the BBB and the barrier blood - humor glazed with the eye (for this one also positive weak in 75 µW/cm²) in the mannitol and in the inuline. In 4 mW/cm² they do not find of leakage the placental barrier for the sucrose.
29. Ward et al Blood-Brain Barrier Permeation in the Rat During Exposure to Low-Power 1.7-GHz Microwave Radiation. Bioelectromagnetics (1982) 3:371-383; Bioelectromagnetics (1985) 6(2):131-143
Exhibition from rats in 2450 MHZ ( CW) or 1.7 GHZ (CW AND PW) in 1 W / kg which shows in 2450 MHZ a leakage which they note as of thermal origin.
30. Burchard et al Effects of electromagnetic fields on the levels of biogenic amine metabolites, quinolinic acid, and beta-endorphin in the cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows. Neurochem Res 1998 Dec;23(12):1527-31
Exhibition of cows in electric and magnetic fields of 60 Hz in 30 µT Who pull an increase of acid quinolinique in the liquid cérébrospinal because of a leakage of the BBB.
31. Hassel et al 1994. Neurotoxicity of Albumin in-vivo. Neuroscience Letters 167:29-32.
32. Merritt Studies on Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability after Microwave-Radiation Radiat Environ Biophys (1978) 15:367-377
Exhibition of rats to 1.2 GHZ (CW AND PW) during 30 mn until 75 mW / cm2. He does not find any effect in the permeability in the mannitol or in the sérotonine in thermal levels.
33. Gruenau Absence of Microwave Effects on Blood Brain Barrier Permeability to [14C] Sucrose in the Conscious Rat. Experimental Neurology 1982, 75: 299-307
Exhibition of rats to 2.8 GHZ (CW AND PW) in exhibitions from 1 to 40 mW / cm2 and do not find any effect in the permeability in the sucrose. Contrary to what is sometimes written, this publication does not contradict Oscar ( 27 ) which did not find either results with the sucrose but found it with the mannitol.
34. Lin et al Microwave Hyperthermia-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Alterations Radiation Research (1982) 89:77-87; Bioelectromagnetics (1986) 7:405-414; Bioelectromagnetics (1994) 5:323-330; Bioelectromagnetics (1980) 1:313-323
Exhibition from rats in 2450 MHZ ( PW) and does not find an effect in 20 mn in the BBB that in 240 W / kg, not in 200 W / kg or next size down.
35. Preston et al Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier to Mannitol in the Rat Following 2450 MHz Microwave Irradiation Brain Res (1979) 174:109-117; J Appl Physiol (1980) 49:218-223
Exhibition from rats in 2450 MHZ ( CW) in more than hanging 1.6 W / kg 30 mn. They do not find any leakage of sucrose or of mannitol.
36. Bortkiewicz A study on the biological effects of exposure mobile-phone frequency EMFM. ed Pr 2001;52(2):101-6
Review of publications evoking effects in the BBB and the troubles of head.
37. Zmirou et al rapport à la DGS 2001
Conflicts note between studies and estimate that certain results are maybe due to the stress of animals locked into the carroussels of experiment. It do not correspond to the reality because on one hand of experiments of this type use rats not irradiated witnesses but in the same position as the tests and so subjected to the same stress; on the other hand experiments showing effects in the BBB use exhibition in distant field on rats free of their movements.
38. Rapport des sénateurs de l'OPECST Novembre 2002
They note some clashing publications, by forgetting certain as those of Neubauer or Schirmacher and, in view of works made within the framework of Comobio (Tore, Aubineau) wish a replication of this experiment better to place the sanitary consequences of these observations (Nevertheless these experiments confirm already the others!).

39. Avis de la Commission de Sécurité des Consommateurs Décembre 2002
After reading some publications and Comobio's works they give very strict advices of use concerning phones (to hold taken away from the sensitive parts of the body, to decrease use, to use a pedestrian kit). On the other hand as regards base station Dr De Sèze declares: <<Il Rest on the other hand completely unlikely that such an effect can occur in the levels of exhibition resulting from base station >> what is an opinion not basing on precise experiments in this domain and in contradiction with the experiments of the Salford team.
40. Rapport de l'Inéris à l'ART Janvier 2003
Most of the publications of 2002 and moreover globally the problem of effects ignore regrettably in the BBB except Comobio's works following which they wish searches to extrapolate results to the man .
41. Garber et al MRI gradient fields increase brain mannitol space. Magn Reson Imaging 1989 Nov-Dec;7(6):605-10 Find a leakage in the mannitol of the BBB after MRI to 0.3 and 0.5 Tesla but not to 1.5 Tesla.
42. Kojitsek et al 1996 Exhibition EMF increases Mn's quantity in the brain
43. Binhi et al Molecular gyroscopes and biological effects of weak extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 2002 May;65(5 Pt 1):051912
44. Novikov et al Dependence of effects of weak combined low-frequency variable and constant magnetic fields on the intensity of asexual reproduction of planarians Dugesia tigrina on the magnitude of the variable field. Biofizika 2002 May-Jun;47(3):564-7
45. Lesczynski et al Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation 2002 May;70(2-3):120-9

46. Frey Headaches from cellular telephones: are they real and what are the implications? Environ Health Perspect 1998 Mar;106(3):101-3
Note complaints for troubles of head of the users of mobil telephone and show that they are well in connection with the electromagnetic fields.
47. Chia S.E. Prevalence of Headache Among Hand-Held Cellular Telephone Users in Singapore: A Community Study. Environ. Health Persp. (2000) 108:1-8
Show an increase of the troubles of head according to the duration of daily use of a cellular mobile telephone.
48. Oftedal et al Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use. Occup Med (Lond) 2000 May;50(4):237-45
Note a relation between certain symptoms and the use of mobil telephone.
Show an increase of the complaints of discomfort, heat on the ear in connection with duration and the number of appeals a day
50. Sandström M et al Mobile phone use and subjective symptoms. Comparison of symptoms experienced by users of analogue and digital mobile phones. Occup. Med. 2001 51:25-35
Show an increase of complaints such as troubles of head, fatigue, sensation of heat in connection with duration and the number of appeals without differences between users GSM and NMT.
51. Hocking, B. Preliminary Report: Symptoms Associated With Mobile Phone Use. Occup Med (London) (1998) 48(6):357-360
Show at the user's of mobil telephone the increase of complaints for troubles of head, heat to the ear, pains in the belt.
52. Datsenko et al Young Phone Users in the Ukraine and Headaches. Environment and Health (in press)
Show an increase of complaints for troubles of head especially at the young users of NMT.
53. SANTINI et al Symptômes exprimés par des riverains de stations relais de téléphonie mobile. La Presse Médicale. 2001. 30 : 1594.
Symptoms expressed by local residents of base station of mobil telephony.
54. SANTINI et al Pathol. Biol. 2002. 50 : 369-373.
Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of base stations : I. Incidences of distance and sex
55. SANTINI et al Preliminary study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Bioelectromagnetics. 24th Annual Meeting. June 2002. Québec (Canada). Abstract book. Pages 258-259.

56. NAVARRO et al About the effects of microwave exposure from cellular phone base stations : A first approach. 2nd International Workshop on Biological effects of EMFS. October 2002. Rhodes (Greece). Proceedings : Volume I. Pages 353-358.

57. SANTINI et al Enquête sur la santé de riverains de stations relais de téléphonie mobile. II/ Incidences de l’âge des sujets, de la durée de leur exposition et de leur position par rapport aux antennes et autres sources électromagnétiques. Pathol. Biol. 2002. (Sous presse).
Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of base stations : II/ Incidences of age, duration of exposure, location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors
58. SANTINI et al
Survey study of people living in vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Electromagnetic Biology And Medicine. 2002. (in press) and accepted for BEMS 2003 (HAWAI).
Inquiry on the local residents of stations relay of mobile telephony.
59. NAVARRO et al. The microwave syndrome : A preliminary study in Spain. Electromagnetic Biology And Medicine. 2002. (Sous presse).

60. Pr Moulder FAQ university of Wisconsin http://www.mcw.edu/gcrc/cop/cell-phone-health-FAQ/toc.html
Note only 4 publications (Avril 2003): Salford, Persson, Finnie et Tsurita.
61. Oftedal et al Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use. Occup Med (Lond) 2000 May;50(4):237-45
Epidemiological study showing links between the use of mobil phones and the troubles of head, among others. The authors estimate that it is not maybe serious problems of health because having pull no medical certificate. Symptoms can last till 2 hours after an appeal showing that the heater is not certainly in cause (regulation in 6 mn).
62. CSIF-CEM report to Priartém on 08/Mars/2003 http://www.csif-cem.org

63. Kwee et al. RF EMF and cell proliferation. Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medecin,Jun 8-13, 1993 in Bologna Italy.
64. Bubanovic IV. Failure of blood-thymus barrier as a mechanism of tumor and trophoblast escape. Medical Hypotheses, 60/3;315-320:2003.

*Calculs used to harmonize the expression of units:
Complete SAR body x 4 = SAR averaged on the brain
SAR in W / kg x 2500 = in µW/cm²

on April 11, 2003